By Michael Wilkinson
How does the mind keep watch over sexual habit, or keep an eye on our bodyweight? How can we do something about rigidity? Addressing those questions and lots of extra in addition to, this completely revised new version displays the numerous advances which were made within the learn of neuroendocrinology over the past 20 years. The textual content examines the significance of the hypothalamus in regulating hormone secretion from the endocrine glands, describing novel websites of hormone liberate together with bone, center, skeletal muscle and liver. The function of steroid hormone, neurotransmitter and peptide receptors, and the molecular responses of aim tissues, is built-in into the dialogue of the neuroendocrine mind, specially via adjustments in gene expression. specific consciousness is hooked up to neuropeptides, together with their profound impact on habit. whole with new full-color figures all through, besides evaluate and essay questions for every bankruptcy, this can be a great source for undergraduate and graduate scholars of neuroscience, psychology, biology and body structure.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Neuroendocrinology
8, below, for glucagon). This large precursor peptide is processed to produce a group of smaller peptides that include glucagon, GLP-1 and GLP-2 (Gardner et al. 2008). 2 Peptide hormones of the gut-brain axis Peptide Source 1. Cholecystokinin small intestine & stomach stimulates vagus nerve to signal satiation 2. Ghrelin stomach small intestine hypothalamus increases hunger stimulates feeding stimulates GH release 3. PYY large intestine released after eating inhibits feeding after eating reduces food intake 4.
The production of angiotensin I, for example, occurs in the bloodstream, not in an endocrine gland. g. hypothalamicreleasing hormones, oxytocin and vasopressin) are synthesized in neurosecretory cells which are modiﬁed neurons. Growth factors such as somatomedin and nerve growth factor act to promote tissue growth, but are not synthesized in endocrine glands. Likewise, the lymphokines, which have hormone-like activity, are synthesized by lymphocytes. Some hormones are synthesized in a number of locations.
6 The heart and lungs As well as its function as a pump for the blood, the heart is an endocrine gland. Muscle cells (cardiomyocytes) in the atrium of the heart respond to an increase in blood pressure by secreting a hormone called atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). ANP opposes the increase in blood pressure by causing (a) vasodilation and (b) a reduced reabsorption of water and sodium ions through its action on the kidneys. ANP also acts as a neuropeptide in the brain, where it regulates salt and water intake, heart rate and vasopressin secretion.