By G. M. Bennison (auth.)
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Geological Structures and Maps, 1st Edition
13, 14) a fold is described as open, with steeper dipping limbs a fold is described as close and with parallel limbs (Fig. 17a, b) the folding is isoclinal. Fig. 18 In an area of more complex structural geology, not produced simply by one epoch of compression, flat folds such as these may be found. They are open folds with horizontal or near-horizontal axial planes. Isoclinal folds Isoclinal folds are a special case of over-folding in which the limbs of a fold both dip in the same direction at the same angle (isos equal: clino slope), as the term suggests (Fig.
Published Geological Survey Maps Leeds 1:50 000 Map No. 70 Draw a section along the 'Line of Section' engraved on the map to show the geological structures. Map 15 The western partofthe map comprises a three· point problem enabling us to draw structure contours at 10m intervals on the base of the ironstone. Assuming the top of the ironstone to be 20 m higher, why does borehole B penetrate only 15m of ironstone? East ofthe fault (a normal fault of high angle of dip), produce the structure contours and re·number them 20 m lower (since the fault is shown as having a down throw of 20 m to the east).
31 Block diagram of a plunging syncline. -v ax ial plane (b) Fig. 32(a) Block diagram of a plunging anticline with the plunge towards the observer. (b) Plunging anticline with the plunge away from the observer, eroded strata shown in broken lines. ". /" . I i The effects of erosion on plunging folds are seen in Figs. 31 and 32. The outcrops of the geological interfaces (on the strike) of the two limbs of a fold are not parallel. While the structure contours are parallel for the beds of each limb, those of the two limbs converge, meeting at the axial plane (Fig.