American Indians of California, The Great Basin and the by Kathleen Kuiper

By Kathleen Kuiper

The geographically designated American territories of California, the good Basin, and the Southwest have lengthy sustained various indigenous peoples, together with the Miwok, Comanche, and Navajo, respectively. An exam of every of those tradition parts yields wealthy histories full of steadfast traditions and non secular practices, subsistence styles dictated by means of geographic place, and social interactions inside of and among tribes. This soaking up quantity surveys the heritage of some of the teams that shape those tradition components in addition to the non secular, cultural, and social practices that distinguish every one tribe.

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The Gabrielino occupied some of the most fertile and pleasant land in California. Because they were among the wealthiest and most technologically advanced Native Americans in the region, they exercised considerable influence on all their neighbours. In religion, for instance, the Gabrielino were the source of the jimsonweed cult, a widely practiced southern California religion that involved various sacred and esoteric rituals and the drinking of toloache, a hallucinogen made from the jimsonweed (Datura stramonium).

In the 21st century, the Shasta were one of 17 tribes that composed the Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians. Early 21st-century population estimates indicated some 1,000 individuals of Shasta descent. wintun The Wintun consist of a number of groups of Penutianspeaking peoples who originally inhabited the west side of the Sacramento Valley in what is today California. Their traditional territory was some 250 miles (400 km) from north to south and included stretches of the flanking foothills. Four primary linguistic groupings, each including a number of dialects, made up the Wintun population: the northern Wintun (Wintu), the central Wintun (Nomlaki), and the two subdivisions of the southern Wintun, the Hill and River Patwin.

They are basically agglutinative in structure. That is, they frequently use affixes (such as prefixes and suffixes), as well as compound words, to form long words made up of several elements. Sometimes such words become so complex that a complete sentence or phrase may be expressed by one word. , cannot be used except in conjunction with other elements within a word), the process has gone beyond agglutination and is called polysynthesis, a process characteristic of many American Indian languages.

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