By Jeremy Colls
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A ebook on wave physics, designed for faculty sophomores.
Last up to date: January 2011.
From: http://www. humans. fas. harvard. edu/~djmorin/waves/
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The EC Large Combustion Plant Directive specifies emission limits for new plant. The national total emission from existing plant that has a capacity greater than 50 MW (thermal) also has to be reduced by 15% (1993) and 30% (1998) from 1980 values. In order to meet these targets in the UK, twelve of the coalfired power stations in England and Wales, representing more than 70% of total coal-fired capacity, have been retrofitted with low-NOx burners. Flue Gas Denitrification. Conventional coal and oil-fired power stations may be used in areas with tight NOx emission limits.
Emissions of NMHCs are larger than those of methane; nevertheless, since they are more reactive, the typical atmospheric concentrations are considerably lower. Within the VOC, hydrocarbons have received the most attention for their role in photochemistry. More recently, the range of molecules of concern has expanded to include other groups such as chlorinated and oxygenated hydrocarbons. Non-methane hydrocarbons can undergo many transformations in the atmosphere, most of which involve reactions with NO3 or OH radicals, or with O3 – during these reactions, the NMHC may form more stable or soluble species, or may become converted from gas to particle or vice versa.
The origin of the world’s oil deposits is far less well understood than is coal’s. Oil itself consists of thousands of different organic molecules, mainly hydrocarbons. Whereas coal formed from the action of sediments on accumulating vegetable matter in a terrestrial environment, it is thought that oil formed in a parallel process acting on accumulating microscopic animal remains in a marine environment. Although fluid, the oil could sometimes be trapped below a domed cap of impermeable rock. As well as these deposits of pure liquid oil, there are extensive deposits of oil shales and sands, in which the oil soaks through a permeable rock much like water through a sponge.