Action Theory and Social Science: Some Formal Models, 1st by Ingmar Pörn (auth.)

By Ingmar Pörn (auth.)

This publication is meant as a contribution to the rules of the sciences of guy, in particular the social sciences. it's been argued with expanding frequency lately that the vocabulary of social technological know-how is to a wide quantity an motion vocabulary and that any try to systematize suggestions and identify bases for realizing within the box can't, for that reason, be successful except it truly is firmly outfitted on motion idea. i feel that those claims are sub­ stantially right, yet while it sort of feels to me that motion conception, because it is appropriate to social technological know-how, nonetheless awaits important contributions from common sense and philosophy. for instance, it has usually been stated, rightly i think, that situa­ tions during which or extra brokers have interaction represent the subject-matter of social technological know-how. yet have we acquired an motion conception that is wealthy sufficient or com­ prehensive sufficient to permit us to symbolize the interplay scenario? i feel no longer. when we have any such idea, even though, we should always have the capacity to supply a correct account of critical social phenomena and to articulate our concep­ tions concerning the nature of social fact. The conceptual scheme complex during this booklet is composed, within the first example, of ideas to a couple of characterization difficulties, i. e. difficulties that could be expressed via questions of the shape "What is the character of . . .

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N(rn ::Jq», forn ~ 1, are reasons which he has for doing the intended action. In the sequel we shall presuppose the principle of ideality in this form. From (i) and (li) of (32) the want conclusion (iv) follows if (v) Ba(N(p ::J Eaq) ::J (Ought P ::J Ought Eaq» is also true. A wanted state of affairs and the circumstance that its realization requires an action are then reasons which the agent has for wanting to do the action. Ought) (N(p::J q) ::J (Ought P ::J Ought q» 38 CHAPTER 2 which says that a necessary condition of an ideal state of affairs is itself ideal.

Since he can have many reasons for an intention - many reasons for holding the belief that constitutes his intention - an action done on the ground of this intention may be an action done for many reasons. Multiple reasons are given the unity of one purpose in an intention and are present in one and the same action via this intention. According to the above characterization an action done for a reason is always also an intentional action. We have already implied that the converse is also true, for we have said that an agent intends an action if and only if he intends to do it on some condition which is believed by him to be fulftlled; this condition is then a reason which the agent has for doing the action and if he does act on the ground of his intention, his action is done for reasons which include the condition.

INTENTIONS AND REASONS 25 Central to the concept of intention, as exercised in constructions of the form (7) a intends to bring it about that q if p, is the notion of something to be done by a if p is the case. It is therefore natural to think that the norm expressed by (8) (p Shall Eaq) ~ is a's intention in this case. If so, how should (7) be articulated, or the idea that a has the intention in question? We think that a reference to a's belief is essential here. More precisely, we think that the singular norm expressed by (8) is a's intention to bring q about on the condition that p if and only if it occurs in the context of the belief expressed by (9) Ba(P ~ Shall Eaq) So (9) is our explication of (7).

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