A Survey of Hinduism, Third Edition by Klaus K. Klostermaier

By Klaus K. Klostermaier

The 3rd variation of this well-regarded creation to Hinduism provides new fabric at the religion's origins, on its kinfolk with rival traditions, and on Hindu technological know-how.

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There are numerous stories in Indian literature about forest hermits who had accumulated so much tapas that the gods, and even the highest among them, Indra, became afraid of losing their positions. The gods usually sent to the ascetic as their ultimate weapon a bewitchingly beautiful heavenly damsel to confuse his thoughts, or a rude fellow to make him lose his temper in an outburst of anger, thereby burning up all his stored up tapas energy. The 38 PA R T I : H I N DU I S M ascetic would then have to start afresh, unless he decided to embrace another vocation.

14. Vedic ayas, formerly translated as “iron,” probably meant copper or bronze. Iron was found in India before 1500 bce in Kashmir and Dvārakā. 15. The Purāṇic dynastic lists, with over 120 kings in one Vedic dynasty alone, date back to the third millennium bce. Greek accounts tell of Indian royal lists going back to the seventh millennium bce. 16. ” (160) 17. Painted gray ware culture in the western Gangetic plains, dated ca. 1100 bce, has been found connected to earlier Indus Valley black and red ware.

They constitute only about 2 percent of India’s population. They are strongly concentrated in the Punjab, where they claim to have a majority. Not all Sikhs are convinced that they need a separate Khalistān, but the more extremist faction did not shy away in the last decades of the twentieth century from terrorism and murder to press the claim. Happily the situation has calmed down now. Around thirty million Indians are Christians, divided into a great many different churches and denominations.

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