A Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism (Concise Encyclopedia of by Klaus K. Klostermaier

By Klaus K. Klostermaier

With entries on every little thing from Manu to Gandhi and the Ramesvaram to the Himalayas, this is often a useful reference publication.

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Bhütas (‘spirits’, ‘ghosts’) Belief in bhütas is widespread in India and there are many ceremonies designed to free a person from their influence. (See also PRETA). Bhuvaæeÿvara (‘Lord of the earth’) Title of ŸIVA, name of famous temple city in Orissa with some of the largest Hindu temples such as the 11th-century Liögaräja temple. bhuvar, also Bhuvarloka The firmament, the middle region between earth and sky. bibhatsa (‘loathing’) One of the basic sentiments of Hindu aesthetics. It is used in a purely aesthetic sense, and indicates a strong emotional experience.

His ashram under the leadership of ‘The Mother’ (Mirra Alfasa, who had joined the ashram in the early 1920s), soon attracted people from India and abroad. Aurobindo’s attempt to work out an ‘Integral Yoga’ which combines traditional Hindu spirituality with engagement in the world and modern ideas excited great interest among intellectuals and artists. Aurobindo never left Pondicherry and hardly ever left his room, spending an increasing amount of time in meditation. His work was continued by ‘The Mother’ and his numerous associates who planned to develop Auroville into a model city for the modern world, combining intellectual and literary work with crafts and practical engagement.

Son of BØHASPATI and father of DRONA, the teacher of the PÄŒ¥AVAS. There are many stories connected with his life in epics and Puräæas. Bharata (1) In the ØGVEDA, hero and king of the warlike Bhäratas. Bharata (2) An ancient king who, while living as a SAMNYÄSI, became attached to a fawn and was reborn as a deer. In a further rebirth as a brahmin he served as palanquin bearer and amazed the king with his wisdom. Bharata (3) Son of Daÿaratha by his wife Kaikeyï; half-brother of Räma, he ruled the country during Räma’s absence on his behalf.

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